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Antibiotics: Technologies and Global Markets

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SOURCE Reportlinker

NEW YORK, June 11, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Antibiotics: Technologies and Global Markets

http://www.reportlinker.com/p02158727/Antibiotics-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html

Use this report to:

- Identify the major market trends and the factors driving or inhibiting the growth of the global pharmaceutical antibiotics market and its various submarkets.
- Learn about developments of novel antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant strains.
- Gain information on the market structure, various subsegments of the global antibiotics market.

Highlights
- The global systemic antibiotics market was valued at $39.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $41.2 billion by 2018, at a CAGR of 0.8%.
- BCC Research predicts the US market shall increase from $15.8 billion in 2013 to $16.4 billion in 2018, a projected CAGR of 0.7% from 2013 to 2018.
- The eEropean market for antibiotics will increase at a CAGR of 0.5% from $9.8 billion in 2013 to $10.1 billion by 2018.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

- Define and measure the global antibiotics market.
- Analyze the market structure by identifying the various subsegments of the global antibiotics market.
- Forecast the revenue of the global antibiotics market and strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trends and contribution to the overall
antibiotics market.
- Identify the major market trends and the factors driving or inhibiting the growth of the global pharmaceutical antibiotics market and its various submarkets.
- Analyze the opportunities in the market for the stakeholders by identifying the high-growth segments of the market.
- Profile the key players in the global antibiotics market and comprehensively analyze their core competencies and market share.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The discovery of the first antibiotic nearly a century ago revolutionized the global healthcare industry, reducing the incidence of the morbidity and mortality due to
dangerous infectious diseases. The global antibiotics market is estimated to have been $39.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $41.2 billion in 2018. The global aging
population and the increased prevalence of hospital-acquired infections are the primary factors driving the growth of the antibiotics market. Economic conditions and
cost-containment issues have compelled North American and European antibiotic manufacturers to explore new regions, such as India, China and Brazil, for growth
opportunities. There has been a paradigm shift in the regulatory framework, causing a positive impact on the overall growth of the antibiotics market; however, the economic
slowdown and the patent expiry of major antibiotics during the forecast period will limit the growth of the market. In order to keep abreast of this change, antibiotic
manufacturers are using various novel technologies to reduce antibiotic resistance in order to yield novel antibiotics.

It is expected that this trend will continue with the aim of solving the current challenges and fulfilling the unmet needs of the market. North America accounted for the largest market in 2013 followed by Europe. However, Asian countries represent the fastest-growing markets due to the increasing aging population, increasing GDP rate
and increasing awareness about healthcare. The leading players in the global antibiotics market include Pfizer Inc. (U.S.), Merck and Co. (U.S.), Eli Lilly and Co. (U.S.), Sanofi-Aventis (France), AstraZeneca (U.K.), Cubist pharmaceuticals (U.S.), Johnson & Johnson (U.S.) and GlaxoSmithKline PLC (U.K.).

SCOPE OF REPORT

This research report categorizes the systemic antibiotics market into the following segments:
Antibiotics market (human application) by product:
- Beta-lactams.
- Penicillin.
- Cephalosporins.
- Carbapenems.
- Fluoroquinolones.
- Second generation.
- Third generation.
- Others.
- Macrolides.
- Tetracycline.
- Other antibiotic classes.
Antibiotics market by application:
- Human applications.
- Veterinary applications.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

- Antibiotic manufacturers.
- Distributors and suppliers of antibiotics.
- Consulting firms.
- Research and development (R&D) companies.
- Drug manufacturers.
- Drug suppliers and distributors.
- Pharmaceutical/medical associations.
- Doctors, physicians, and hospitals.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This research study used extensive secondary sources (e.g., directories, databases, white papers, annual reports, company documents and company SEC filings).
Secondary research was mainly used to identify and collect information useful for the extensive technical, market-oriented and commercial study of this global market. It
was also used to obtain key information about the major players, market classification and segmentation according to industry trends to the bottom-most level, geographical
markets and key developments related to the market and technology. A database of key industry leaders was also prepared using secondary research. This database was
then used for primary research during the course of the study.

Primary sources include industry experts such as CEOs, vice presidents, marketing directors and related key executives from various key companies and organizations in
the pharmaceutical industry. All primary sources were interviewed to obtain and verify critical qualitative and quantitative information as well as to assess future prospects.
Primary research was also done to understand the segment types, industry trends, key players, the competitive landscape of each type of product and key market dynamics
such as drivers, restraints, opportunities, important issues, winning imperatives, key player strategies and recent trends. After completing the market engineering process with calculations of market statistics, market size estimations, market forecasting, market crackdown and data triangulation, extensive primary research was used to gather extensive information and to verify and validate the critical numbers arrived derived. Extensive qualitative and further quantitative analyses were also done from all of the numbers derived from the completed market engineering process to list key information throughout the report. Summarized below are the primary source and secondary source parameters/data points used in this study.

- Primary source parameters/data points.
- Growth rates: The antibiotics market will experience low growth over the next five years. The Asia-Pacific region will experience the highest growth largely driven by
the growing demand from China and India.
- Market by type of product.
- Penicillins: xx%.
- Cephalosporin: xx%.
- Carbapenems: xx%.
- Beta-lactam: xx%.
- Fluoroquinolones: xx%.
- Macrolides: xx%.
- Tetracycline: xx%.
- Other antibiotic classes: xx%.
- Market by application type.
- Pharmaceutical: xx%.
- Veterinary: xx%.
- Secondary source parameters/data points.
- Market revenues: Company financials, magazines, journals, press releases.
- Company revenues: Annual reports, SEC filings, company websites, public databases.
- Qualitative information (market dynamics and market trends): Annual reports, company websites, press releases.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, 2013-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 MARKET OVERVIEW 10
INTRODUCTION 10
BACTERIA 10
TABLE 1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAM-NEGATIVE AND GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 11
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 11
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA 12
Mycobacterium 12
TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA BY SHAPE 13
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS 14
RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS 14
TABLE 3 INCIDENCE OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, 2010 (NO./%) 15
TABLE 4 INCIDENCE OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY
STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 15
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS 15
TABLE 5 INCIDENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS,
2010 (NO./%) 16
SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS 16
TABLE 6 INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS
CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 16
Cellulitis and Erysipelas 17
Folliculitis 17
Impetigo and Ecthyma 17
Abscesses 17
Carbuncles and Furuncles 17
GYNECOLOGICAL INFECTIONS 17
TABLE 7 PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INFECTIONS CAUSED BY
STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 17
ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA 18
TABLE 8 TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS AND METHODS OF RESISTANCE 18
TABLE 9 CURRENT AND EMERGING ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA 19
DEFINITION OF ANTIBIOTIC 21
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS 21
FIGURE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS 21
HISTORY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND CURRENT STATUS 22
PRE-ANTIBIOTIC ERA 22
ANTIBIOTIC ERA 22
TABLE 10 U.S. LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, 1920-2011 (YEARS) 23
TABLE 11 ANTIBIOTICS: YEAR OF INTRODUCTION, MODE OF ACTION AND TARGET
SPECIES 23
EMERGENCE OF POST-ANTIBIOTIC ERA 24
TABLE 12 BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 25
FIGURE 2 CDC LIST OF MOST HIGHLY CONCERNING BACTERIA, PRIORITIZED
ACCORDING TO THREAT LEVEL 26
TABLE 13 ADDITIONAL COST AND LENGTH OF STAY DUE TO
ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA IN THE U.S., ISRAEL AND SPAIN 26
DRIVERS RESTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES 27
DRIVERS 27
Growth of the Global Pharmaceutical Market Driven by Antibiotics 27
Aging Population Propels the Growth of the Antibiotics Market 28
FIGURE 3 INCREASE IN AGING POPULATION, 2011 AND 2050 (BILLIONS) 28
Public-Private Partnerships Encourage Antibiotic Development 29
Increasing Prevalence of Hospital-Acquired Infections Triggers Market
Growth 29
RESTRAINTS 30
Antibiotic Resistance 30
Declining R&D Investment Poses Long-Term Barrier to Market Growth 31
Genericization of Antibiotics Restrains Market Growth 31
OPPORTUNITIES 32
Market Expansion into Emerging Countries 32
Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens Provide an Opportunity to Develop
Novel Antibacterial Agents 32
MARKET SHARES OF KEY COMPANIES 33
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTIC COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 33
REGULATORY ISSUES 35
FDA AND INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY AGENCIES 35
RECENT REGULATORY REFORMS 36
KETEK CASE STUDY 36
KEY TRENDS AFFECTING THE MARKET 37
NEVER EVENTS 37
Impact on the Use of Antibiotics 38
FUNDING FOR NEW ANTIBIOTICS 38
United States 38
Infectious Diseases Society of America 38
NIH Funding 39
Public-Private Partnerships 39
Europe 40
Innovative Medicines Initiative 40
EMERGING DRUGS WITH NOVEL MECHANISMS OF ACTION 41
PharmaSea Project 41
Combination of Different Antibiotics 41
Others 42

CHAPTER 4 ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 44
REASONS FOR LACK OF INNOVATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 44
TABLE 14 REASONS FOR LACK OF INNOVATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 45
LOW RETURN ON INVESTMENT 45
STRICT REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 46
SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGES 47
STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 47
FIGURE 5 STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 48
PUSH STRATEGIES 48
Increasing Access to Research 48
Increasing the Number of Scientific Personnel 49
Direct Funding of Research 50
Translational Research 51
Tax Incentives 52
Product Development Partnerships 52
PULL STRATEGIES 52
Monetary Awards 53
Advance Market Commitments 53
Legal and Regulatory Initiatives 54
Clinical Trials 54
Accelerated Regulatory Review 55
Intellectual Property Rights Strategies 55
Increasing the Term of IP Protection and Data Exclusivity 56
Wildcard Patent Extension 57
Patent Buyouts 57
Pricing and Reimbursement 57
Other Legal/Regulatory Strategies 58
COMBINED PULL AND PUSH INCENTIVES 58
ORPHAN DRUG STATUS 58
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF U.S. AND EU ORPHAN DRUG LEGISLATION AND
PROCESS 59

CHAPTER 5 ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY TYPE 61
MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 61
MARKET SHARE ESTIMATION 61
GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS 62
TABLE 16 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 17 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 6 ANTIBIOTICS BY CLASS 62
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS 63
TABLE 18 GLOBAL BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 64
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase 64
Metallo-Beta-Lactamases 65
FIGURE 7 TYPES OF BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS 65
Penicillins 65
TABLE 20 GLOBAL PENICILLIN MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 21 TYPES OF PENICILLIN AND BRAND NAMES 67
Cephalosporins 67
Side Effects 68
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CEPHALOSPORIN MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 68
Teflaro Driving the Cephalosporin Market 69
Generations of Cephalosporins 69
TABLE 23 GENERATIONS OF CEPHALOSPORIN 69
First-Generation Cephalosporins 69
TABLE 24 FIRST-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 70
Second-Generation Cephalosporins 70
TABLE 25 SECOND-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 71
Third-Generation Cephalosporins 71
Antipseudomonal Cephalosporins 72
TABLE 26 THIRD-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 72
Fourth-Generation Cephalosporins 72
TABLE 27 FOURTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 73
Fifth-Generation Cephalosporins 73
TABLE 28 FIFTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 73
Carbapenems 74
TABLE 29 GLOBAL CARBAPENEM MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 30 TYPES OF CARBAPENEMS 75
QUINOLONES AND FLUOROQUINOLONES 75
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR QUINOLONES BY GENERATION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLUOROQUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 77
Generations of Quinolones 77
First-Generation Quinolones 77
Second-Generation Fluoroquinolones 77
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECOND-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 78
Third-Generation Fluoroquinolones 79
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THIRD-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79
Levofloxacin: A Major Driver of the Market for Third-
Generation Fluoroquinolones 79
Fourth-Generation Fluoroquinolones 80
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR "OTHER" QUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 36 TYPES OF QUINOLONES 80
TETRACYCLINE 81
TABLE 37 GLOBAL TETRACYCLINE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 38 TYPES OF TETRACYCLINE 82
MACROLIDES 83
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MACROLIDE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84
Ketolides 84
Ketek 84
TABLE 40 TYPES OF MACROLIDES/KETOLIDES 84
OTHER ANTIBIOTICS 85
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR "OTHER" ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 85

CHAPTER 6 VETERINARY ANTIBIOTICS MARKET 87
INTRODUCTION 87
TABLE 42 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANTIBIOTIC USAGE IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS 87
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY ANTIBIOTICS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88
VETERINARY APPLICATIONS 88
FEED APPLICATION 88
FDA to Phase out Antibiotics from Food Production 89
THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS 89
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY
ANIMAL TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
OTHER APPLICATIONS 91

CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 94
ASTRAZENECA 94
FINANCIALS 94
TABLE 46 ASTRAZENECA REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 94
DEVELOPMENTS 95
TABLE 47 ASTRAZENECA DEVELOPMENTS 95
BAYER HEALTHCARE AG 95
FINANCIALS 96
TABLE 48 BAYER REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 96
DEVELOPMENTS 96
CUBIST PHARMACEUTICALS 96
FINANCIALS 96
TABLE 49 CUBIST PHARMACEUTICAL REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES,
2011-2013 97
DEVELOPMENTS 97
TABLE 50 CUBIST PHARMACEUTICAL DEVELOPMENTS 97
GLAXOSMITHKLINE 98
FINANCIALS 99
TABLE 51 GSK REVENUES AND R& D EXPENDITURES, 2011–2013 ($ MILLIONS) 99
DEVELOPMENTS 99
TABLE 52 GSK DEVELOPMENTS 99
JOHNSON & JOHNSON 100
FINANCIALS 100
TABLE 53 JOHNSON & JOHNSON REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013
($ MILLIONS) 100
DEVELOPMENTS 101
TABLE 54 JOHNSON & JOHNSON DEVELOPMENTS 101
MERCK & CO. 101
FINANCIALS 102
TABLE 55 MERCK & CO. REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 102
DEVELOPMENTS 102
PFIZER 102
FINANCIALS 103
TABLE 56 PFIZER REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 103
DEVELOPMENTS 103
TABLE 57 PFIZER DEVELOPMENTS 103
TABLE 58 LIST OF OTHER COMPANIES IN THE ANTIBIOTICS MARKET 104

CHAPTER 8 CLINICAL TRIALS ON ANTIBIOTICS 108
FIGURE 8 ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASES I-III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 (%) 109
ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS 110
FIGURE 9 ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS BY CLASS, 2013 (%) 110
TABLE 59 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 111
ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS 112
TABLE 60 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 112
ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE I CLINICAL TRIALS 113
TABLE 61 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE I CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 113

CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A: OVERVIEW OF BACTERIA TYPES 116
DISEASE ORGANISMS, DIAGNOSTICS, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND
TREATMENTS 116
TABLE 62 GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 116
TABLE 63 GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA 119
TABLE 64 GRAM-NEGATIVE COCCI 125
TABLE 65 GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS 127
TABLE 66 GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO THE ENTERIC TRACT 128
TABLE 67 GRAM-NEGATIVE SPIROCHETES 133
TABLE 68 GRAM-NEGATIVE OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES 135
TABLE 69 MISCELLANEOUS BACTERIA 137

CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX B: LIST OF ACRONYMS 139

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAM-NEGATIVE AND GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 11
TABLE 2 CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA BY SHAPE 13
TABLE 3 INCIDENCE OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, 2010 (NO./%) 15
TABLE 4 INCIDENCE OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY
STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 15
TABLE 5 INCIDENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS,
2010 (NO./%) 16
TABLE 6 INCIDENCE OF BACTERIAL SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS
CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 16
TABLE 7 PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS INFECTIONS CAUSED BY
STREPTOCOCCUS, 2010 (NO./%) 17
TABLE 8 TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS AND METHODS OF RESISTANCE 18
TABLE 9 CURRENT AND EMERGING ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA 19
TABLE 10 U.S. LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, 1920-2011 (YEARS) 23
TABLE 11 ANTIBIOTICS: YEAR OF INTRODUCTION, MODE OF ACTION AND TARGET
SPECIES 23
TABLE 12 BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 25
TABLE 13 ADDITIONAL COST AND LENGTH OF STAY DUE TO ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT
BACTERIA IN THE U.S., ISRAEL AND SPAIN 26
TABLE 14 REASONS FOR LACK OF INNOVATION IN ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 45
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF U.S. AND EU ORPHAN DRUG LEGISLATION AND PROCESS 59
TABLE 16 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY CLASS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 17 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 18 GLOBAL BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 20 GLOBAL PENICILLIN MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 66
TABLE 21 TYPES OF PENICILLIN AND BRAND NAMES 67
TABLE 22 GLOBAL CEPHALOSPORIN MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 23 GENERATIONS OF CEPHALOSPORIN 69
TABLE 24 FIRST-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 70
TABLE 25 SECOND-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 71
TABLE 26 THIRD-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 72
TABLE 27 FOURTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 73
TABLE 28 FIFTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS 73
TABLE 29 GLOBAL CARBAPENEM MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 30 TYPES OF CARBAPENEMS 75
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR QUINOLONES BY GENERATION, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR FLUOROQUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SECOND-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR THIRD-GENERATION FLUOROQUINOLONES BY
REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR "OTHER" QUINOLONES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 36 TYPES OF QUINOLONES 80
TABLE 37 GLOBAL TETRACYCLINE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 38 TYPES OF TETRACYCLINE 82
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MACROLIDE MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 40 TYPES OF MACROLIDES/KETOLIDES 84
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR "OTHER" ANTIBIOTICS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 85
TABLE 42 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANTIBIOTIC USAGE IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS 87
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY ANTIBIOTICS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR VETERINARY THERAPEUTIC ANTIBIOTICS BY ANIMAL
TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 90
TABLE 46 ASTRAZENECA REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 47 ASTRAZENECA DEVELOPMENTS 95
TABLE 48 BAYER REVENUES AND R &D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 49 CUBIST PHARMACEUTICAL REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES,
2011-2013 97
TABLE 50 CUBIST PHARMACEUTICAL DEVELOPMENTS 97
TABLE 51 GSK REVENUES AND R& D EXPENDITURES, 2011–2013 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 52 GSK DEVELOPMENTS 99
TABLE 53 JOHNSON & JOHNSON REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 54 JOHNSON & JOHNSON DEVELOPMENTS 101
TABLE 55 MERCK & CO. REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 56 PFIZER REVENUES AND R&D EXPENDITURES, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 57 PFIZER DEVELOPMENTS 103
TABLE 58 LIST OF OTHER COMPANIES IN THE ANTIBIOTICS MARKET 104
TABLE 59 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 111
TABLE 60 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE II CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 112
TABLE 61 ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUNDS IN PHASE I CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 113
TABLE 62 GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA 116
TABLE 63 GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA 119
TABLE 64 GRAM-NEGATIVE COCCI 125
TABLE 65 GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS 127
TABLE 66 GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS RELATED TO THE ENTERIC TRACT 128
TABLE 67 GRAM-NEGATIVE SPIROCHETES 133
TABLE 68 GRAM-NEGATIVE OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES 135
TABLE 69 MISCELLANEOUS BACTERIA 137
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL ANTIBIOTICS MARKET BY REGION, 2013-2018 ($
MILLIONS) 8

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS 21
FIGURE 2 CDC LIST OF MOST HIGHLY CONCERNING BACTERIA, PRIORITIZED
ACCORDING TO THREAT LEVEL 26
FIGURE 3 INCREASE IN AGING POPULATION, 2011 AND 2050 (BILLIONS) 28
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL ANTIBIOTIC COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2012 (%) 33
FIGURE 5 STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH 48
FIGURE 6 ANTIBIOTICS BY CLASS 62
FIGURE 7 TYPES OF BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS 65
FIGURE 8 ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASES I-III CLINICAL TRIALS, 2013 (%) 109
FIGURE 9 ANTIBIOTICS IN PHASE III CLINICAL TRIALS BY CLASS, 2013 (%) 110

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